Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)

General anaesthetic (GA)

Thyroid Gland

Local anaesthetic (LA)

Thyroid hormone

Hyperthyroidism

Keloid scar

Surgical drain

Vocal cords

Tracheostomy

Diathermy

Dissection

Medical management

Tonsillar beds

Soft palate

Denasal speech

Eustachian tube

Grommets

Middle ear

Tissue

Histology

ENT

Analgesics

Referred pain

Simple analgesics

Malignancy

Polyps

Tympanic membrane

Glue ear

Tonsillitis

Sinusitis

Graft

Sinuses

Retraction pocket

Nasal packs

Oesophagus

Biopsy

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA)
This condition is caused by the soft tissues of the neck and mouth collapsing into the airway during sleep and preventing proper breathing taking place. This results in the patient waking up during the night when their blood oxygen level drops. Often the waking episodes are not noticed by the patient and may occur many times a night causing very disturbed sleep and chronic fatigue during the day. There are other medical complications of OSA that can be very serious.


Thyroid Gland
The thyroid gland is situated in the lower part of the neck (in the middle) over the windpipe (see picture). It produces Thyroid hormone.


General anaesthetic
This type of anaesthetic involves being put to sleep. The patient has no awareness of the procedure under general anaesthetic.


Local anaesthetic
This type of anaesthetic is used to perform smaller procedures where a general aneasthetic is not required. An injection is given to the area to be operated. This numbs the area and once the injection take effect, the area can be operated on without any pain being felt. It is important to know that you may be able to feel a sensation of the surgeon operating, but there will be no pain.


Diathermy
The diathermy machine is used to stop bleeding or to cut tissue with less bleeding than conventional methods. A high voltage current is used to coagulate bleeding vessels to stop bleeding.


Hyperthyroidism
Overproduction of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.


Keloid scar
A keloid scar is produced when the body produces an excessive scarring response to the surgery that has been performed. These scars are larger than usual and may be unsightly. They are more common in people of an Afro-Carribean background.


Vocal cords
The vocal cords are the two ligaments in the voice box that vibrate to produce sounds/speech.


Tracheostomy
A tracheostomy is a breathing tube placed through a surgical incision directly into the windpipe, below the level of the vocal cords.


Surgical drain
A tube left in at the site of the operation (usually under suction) to drain any bleeding from the wound after operation. These are normally removed 1-2 days after the surgery.


Thyroid Hormone
Thyroid hormone is responsible for various functions on the body. An important function is the control of the metabolic rate of the body.


Dissection
Dissection is the process of separating tissues.


Tonsillar beds
The tonsillar beds are the areas at the back of the throat that contain the tonsils and are the areas that are exposed after tonsillectomy.


Soft palate
The soft part at the back of the roof of the mouth.


Denasal Speech
The type of speech that is produced when the nasal passages are blocked. The sound is directed out of the mouth only and this changes the sound quality significantly.


Eustachian Tube
The tube that connects the middle ear to the back of the nose and upper part of the throat.


Grommets
Tiny tubes that are placed surgically through a small cut in the tympanic membrane. They are used to ventillate the middle ear. sinuses


Middle ear
The ear is divided into three regions, the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear is the ear canal which extends to the ear drum. The middle ear is a cavity that contains the bones of hearing which transmit the sound waves from the ear drum to the inner ear. The inner ear contains the balance apparatus and the cochlea which converts the sound waves to nerve signals which are sent to the brain. (see picture)


Daystay
Operations performed in daystay theatre are minor enough to allow the patient to go home the same day as the procedure.


ENT
Ear, Nose and Throat


Tissue
Name for the materials that make up the human body. The body is composed of many types and kinds of tissues.


Analgesics
Pain killers.


Simple analgesics
Pain killers such as Paracetamol or Ibuprofen.


Polyps
Polyps are grape-like swellings that protrude into the nose, usually from the paranasal sinuses. The exact cause of these polyps is unknown, but they are associated with allergic inflammation of the nose.


Tympanic membrane

Ear drum


Histology

Histology is the science of diagnosing disease from views of tissue under the miscoscope


Referred pain

Pain felt in a region of the body that is some distance away from the actual cause of the pain.


Medical management

Treatment of a disease with medications only - includes topical medication eg. drops.


Tonsillitis
Tonsillitis is the term used to describe inflammation of the tonsils, usually due to infection.


Malignancy
This word is associated with tumours. A malignant tumour has the potential to spread. This is commonly known as cancerous.


Glue ear
Fluid in the middle ear that can cause a decreased level of hearing.


Sinusitis
Inflammation of the nasal sinus cavities. Acute sinusitis is usually from an infection and is severe. Chronic sinusitis is an ongoing complaint not associated with severe infection


Paranasal sinuses
The air-filled cavities that surround the nasal passages.(see drawing)


Retraction pocket
When the eustachian tube is not working properly, the pressure in the middle ear drops and sucks the ear drum inwards. The pockets in the ear drum that form as a result are called retraction pockets.


Graft
A graft is a piece of tissue taken from another area of the body to close or cover a defect in the area that is being operated on. (eg. skin grafts = skin taken from another site in the body used to cover a wound / defect)


Nasal packs
Nasal packs are sometimes used to reduce the amount of bleeding from the nose after nasal surgery. They are usually made of vaseline gauze. They are inserted into both nostrils after the operation while under general aneasthetic and usually removed within twenty four hours of the surgery.


Oesophagus
This is the medical name of the gullet, the tube that takes food and liquids from the throat to the stomach.


Biopsy
Taking a biopsy involves removing a very small piece of tissue from the area of concern and sending it for histology.

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Last updated: 23 October 2004